Fracking Video Review

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4.20.2011

The Weatherford Site...A Closer Look At The Fracking Monster Through A Supplier

Unfortunately, even with the VOLUNTARY site tossed up onto the internet to appease us, we still do not have a real clue as to what is being pumped down the wells when (un)Natural Gas companies and their partners trespass under our lands FRACKING (note...when citizens are forced to participate, do not have the right to refuse the Gas Companies, they are TRESPASSING) for (un)Natural Gas.  Because disclosure is A) voluntary on part of the gas industry, B) they can choose what they will and will not share with us, and C) some disclosure do not tell the whole truth, we are still in the dark.  So, what happens if we visit a Fracking Fluids supplier web site...what can we find out about the chemical make up of various Fracking Fluids being dumped into our lands?

With this thought in mind, we went searching compliments of Google, and found Weatherford  who seems quite proud of their ability to meet the (un)Natural Gas Industries Fracking Fluid needs...below is what we have found, though it still leaves the question of what exactly is being pumped into our lands shrouded in mystery.  Sure once you read through the below information, you'll feel like you are in a nightmare version of Arlo Guthrie's "Alice's Restaurant" with confusion sung in four part harmony.  I mean seriously, could a company dribble out more shit without telling us a God DAMNED THING?  Talk about vague and ambiguous!

Fracturing Chemicals

Hydraulic fracturing is the process of pumping water or oil-based fluids with a proppant at sufficient pressure to create a fracture in a hydrocarbon-bearing reservoir. The goal is to create a propped fracture or pathway that will increase the well productivity. Often the well will not produce at economic rates without such a treatment.An in-depth discussion of the process is not possible here, but the completion engineer will deal with rock mechanics, fluid dynamics, chemistry and other complex issues in an effort to design a successful treatment.

We manufacture over 1000 different chemicals in our Elmendorf, Texas and Leetsdale, Pennsylvania ISO-Certified facilities under ISO 9001:2008 registration...DID YOU READ THAT...over 1000 different chemicals...sure they can figure out a chemical to get around ANY ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATION.

Hydrocarbon-Based Fracturing Fluids

Hydrocarbon-based fracturing fluids are used to stimulate water-sensitive formations. These formations contain a high percentage of clays that may migrate or swell in the presence of water or brine. 

Hydrocarbon-based fluids do not adversely affect formation clays and are considered non-damaging in that regard.

Gelling Agents

HGA-37 - Phosphate ester based gelling agent for diesel, kerosene or crude. Used with HGA-44 or HGA-48 activators. Gelled hydrocarbons are stable to 250°F (121°C). Usual concentration range is 5 to10 gal/1,000 gal of hydrocarbon (5to10 L/m3).

HGA-70 - Concentrated phosphate ester based gelling agent for diesel, kerosene or crude oils stable over 300°F (149°C). Most active gelling agent manufactured by Weatherford and is used with HGA-48, HGA-61, HGA-S61, or HGA-65 activators. Usual concentration range is 3 to10 gal/1,000 gal of hydrocarbon (3 to 10 L/m3).

HGA-702 - Highly active phosphate ester based gelling agent for diesel fuel, kerosene, aromatic and aliphatic solvents or crude oils for temperatures up to 300°F (149°C). Low freeze point of -30°F (-34°C). Used with HGA-48, HGA-61, HGA-S61, or HGA-65 activators. Usual concentration range is 3 to 10 gal/1,000 gal of hydrocarbon (3 to 10 L/m3).

Activators / Cross-Linkers

HGA-44 - Organo-metallic complex cross-linker that rapidly releases its metal hydroxide for cross-linking HGA-37 up to 250°F (121°C). Usual concentration range is 5 to 10 gal/1,000 gal of hydrocarbon (5 to 10 L/m3).

HGA-48 - Organo-metallic complex that functions as a cross-linker for hydrocarbon-based fracturing fluids. Used with HGA-37, HGA-70, or HGA-702 depending on the type of hydrocarbon. Temperature range is over 300°F (149°C). Usual concentration range is 5 to 10 gal/1,000 gal of hydrocarbon (5 to 10 L/m3).

HGA-55SE - Organo-metallic complex blend used to create stable diesel, kerosene, or crude oil based gels over 300°F (149°C). Used with HGA-70, HGA-71, or HGA-702 to provide a delayed cross-link over 4 minutes. Usual concentration range is 5 to 10 gal/1,000 gal of hydrocarbon (5 to 10 L/m3).

HGA-61 - Organo-metallic complex used to create stable diesel, kerosene, or crude oil based gels over 300°F (149°C). Provides a delayed cross-link. Usual concentration range is 5 to 10 gal/1,000 gal of hydrocarbon (5 to 10 L/m3).

HGA-S61 - Organo-metallic complex that provides a rapid, almost immediate, cross-link for gelled hydrocarbon fluids. Provides stable, high viscosity gels over 300˚F (149˚C). Usual concentration range is 5 to 10 gal/1,000 gal of hydrocarbon (5 to 10 L/m3).

HGA-65 - Organo-metallic complex used to create stable diesel, kerosene or oil based gels over 300˚F (149˚C). Provides a rapid cross-link to allow for “on the fly” mixing. Used with HGA-70, HGA-71, or HGA-702. Usual concentration range is 3 to 10 gal/1,000 gal of hydrocarbon (3 to 10 L/m3).

Water-Based Fracturing Fluids

Water Gelling Agents
Water gelling agents viscosify fresh water and light salt brines enhancing the frac fluids proppant transport properties. These gels are easily cross-linked to greatly increase the amount of proppant they may carry. Selection of the proper gelling agent is dependent on downhole conditions and formation characteristics.

WGA-1 - Low residue hydroxypropyl guar (HPG) gelling agent that contains internal buffers to make it self-dispersing and easy to mix. Contains 1 to 3% insoluble residue and is readily cross-linked with antimony, borate, and titanium based activators. Usually used at concentrations from 20 to 50 lb/1,000 gal (2.4 to 6.0 kg/m3).

WGA-2 - Guar gum gelling agent that self-hydrates for continuous addition or “on-the-fly” mixing. pH buffers and dispersants allow easy lump-free mixing to quickly develop maximum viscosity. Can be cross-linked with borate or antimony cross-linkers. Usually used at concentrations from 20 to 50 lb/1,000 gal (2.4 to 6.0 kg/m3).

WGA-5 - Carboxymethylhydroxypropyl guar (CMHPG) that is slightly anionic and double derivatized. Contains less than 1% residue and is easily cross-linked with zirconate based activators. Usually used at concentrations from 20 to 50 lb/1,000 gal (2.4 to 6.0 kg/m3).

WGA-15 - Fast hydrating guar gelling agent that self-hydrates through internal dispersants and buffers to enable lump-free, continuous mixing. Achieves 85 to 90% viscosity within the first three minutes. Usually used at concentrations from 15 to 50 lb/1,000 gal (1.8 to 6.0 kg/m3).

WGA-21 - Low residue, water soluble, hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) polymer that provides high viscosity and excellent friction reduction. Compatible with both nitrogen (N2) and carbon dioxide (CO2). Unaffected by water hardness or salt concentration. Usually used at concentrations from 20 to 50 lb/1,000 gal (2.4 to 6.0 kg/m3).

WGA-50 - Self-hydrating, hydroxypropyl guar (HPG) slurry that provides rapid viscosity development and eliminates the need for pre-mixing. The slurry concentration contains 4 lb (1.81 kg) active HPG per gal. Usual loading rate is 5.0 to 12.5 gal per 1,000 gal (5.0 to 12.5 L/m3). This equals a dry HPG loading of 20 to 50 lb/1,000 gal (2.4 to 6.0 kg/m3).

WGA-209 - Surfactant used to create a zero residue fracturing fluid with no polymeric gelling agents. Used at a loading of 9 to 10% and combines with sodium chloride at a loading of 5% by weight of water (BWOW) to reach maximum viscosity. The upper temperature limit is around 175°F (79°C).

Zeta Gel - Easily mixed, two-component (one anionic and one cationic), surfactant based gel system. Effective temperature range up to 300°F (149°C). Active solids of 1.1 to 2.0%. Salt tolerant up to 2% total chlorides. Rapid gel development, environmentally friendly, and compatible with nitrogen (N2) and carbon dioxide (CO2). Components include:
    WGA-300: liquid anionic surfactant, or • WGA-300P: dry blended anionic surfactant plus nonionic friction reducer • WGA-305: cationic surfactant plus boosters

Biocides

Bacteriacides are used to kill microorganisms including sulfate-reducing bacteria, slime-forming bacteria, and algae. Microorganisms and their enzymes can degrade and destroy polymeric drilling muds, completion and workover fluids, and fracturing fluids. 

Bio-Clear™ 50 - 5% active liquid brominated propionamide, DBNPA. Kills rapidly and has a very short half-life. Most effective when the pH of the system starts below 9.0. Usual used at a concentration of 0.4 gal/1,000 gal (0.4 L/m3).

Bio-Clear™ 200 - 20% active liquid brominated propionamide, DBNPA. Kills rapidly and has a very short half-life. Most effective when the pH of the system starts below 9.0. Usually used at a low concentration of 0.1 gal/1,000 gal (0.1 L/m3).

Bio-Clear™ 750 - 98% active admixture, which combines dry brominated propionamide (DBNPA) and dry brominated glutaronitrile (BBMG), that rapidly and effectively kills while also exhibiting preservation properties of microorganisms encountered in oilfield operations. Packaged in 1-lb (0.45 kg) water-soluble bags that allow for ease of handling in the field. Use 2 to 4 bags per frac tank.

Bio-Clear™ 1,000 - Concentrated powder form of DBNPA. Kills rapidly and has a very short half-life. Packaged in 1 pound (0.45 kg) water-soluble bags, making handling safer and disposal easier. Use 1 to 3 bags per frac tank.

Fluid Loss Additives/Diverting Agents

Achieving adequate fracture penetration in a permeable rock often requires a fluid-loss material to control the loss of fluid to the rock matrix perpendicular to the fracture face. Diverting agents are commonly used in well treating operations to more effectively distribute treating fluids through a formation or divert fluid from one zone of interest to another.

AA-100 - Mixture of natural gums and bridging agents, 80% of which is degradable. Designed to work in low to mid-range permeability wells of 0.001 to 10 md. Usual concentration is 25 to 50 lb/1,000 gal (3 to 6 kg/m3).

BAF-1 - Benzoic acid flakes that function as a diverting or bridging agent as well as a fluid loss additive in aqueous based fracturing fluids. Dissolves into a gas over time. Usual concentration is 1 to 2 lb/gal (120 to 240 kg/m3) during the first part of the treatment.

FL-100 - Solid powder used to control fluid loss in permeable zones. Usual concentration ranges from 20 to 50 lb/1,000 gal (2.4 to 6 kg/m3).

FL-250HT - Premium grade white starch designed to work in low permeability (0.001 to 10 md) applications up to 250°F (121°C). Non-damaging because it is degradable with time and temperature. Recommended loadings range from 25 to 50 lb/1,000 gal (3 to 6 kg/m3).

FL-300HT - Cross-linked, genetically modified white starch designed to work in low permeability (0.001 to 10 md) applications up to 300°F (149°C). Non-damaging because it is degradable with time and temperature. Recommended loadings range from 10 to 50 lb/1,000 gal (1.2 to 6.0 kg/m3).

FLR-150 - Finely ground petroleum hydrocarbon resin that can be used as a diverting agent/fluid loss additive in wells up to 300°F (149°C). Contains no damaging particles to plug the well’s permeability because the resin dissolves in the produced oil. Concentrations range from 10 to 50 lb/1,000 gal (1.2 to 6.0 kg/m3).

FLR-170 - Finely ground petroleum hydrocarbon resin that can be used as a diverting agent/fluid loss additive in wells up to 340°F (171°C). Contains no damaging particles to plug the well’s permeability because the resin dissolves in the produced oil. Concentrations range from 10 to 50 lb/1,000 gal (1.2 to 6.0 kg/m3).


Clay Control Additives

Reservoir rock often contains clays with many different structures. The clays may swell, break off and migrate or both in the presence of water or acid-based fluid systems. Chemicals containing cations have been proven effective in maintaining the permeability after treatment with water-based fluids.

CC-200 - Very low molecular weight clay control polymer that effectively treats microdarcy formations without plugging the permeability. 100 times smaller than original clay stabilizers to make it more effective at preventing swelling and stabilizing fines. Usual concentration is 1 to 2 gal/1,000 gal (1 to 2 L/m3).

CC-200KF - Combination (patent pending) of a low molecular weight clay control polymer with potassium formate to provide effective clay stabilization through ionic effects. High-temperature stability, low formation damage, and high compatibility with most drilling, fracturing, and workover fluids. Concentration range is 1 to 5 gal/1,000 gal (1 to 5 L/m3).

CC-300 - Cationic copolymer that “locks” onto the clay structure to provide permanent clay control through cationic charge utilization. Compatible with anionic and non-ionic surfactants, while retaining its cationic functionality. Resistant to shear degradation. Usual concentration is 1 to 2 gal/1,000 gal
(1 to 2 L/m3).

CC-300KF - Combination (patent pending) of a low-molecular weight clay-control polymer with potassium formate that provides effective clay stabilization through ionic effects. High temperature stability, low formation damage, and high compatibility with most drilling, fracturing, and workover fluids. Concentration range is 1 to 5 gal/1,000 gal (1 to 5 L/m3).

CC-350 - Synergistic blend of quaternary chloride compounds that functions as a liquid potassium chloride (KCl) replacement for use as a temporary clay and shale control additive. Compatible with anionic stimulation fluid additives, such as friction reducers, and does not interfere with enzyme gel breakers. Usual concentration is 1 to 2 gal/1,000 gal (1 to 2 L/m3).

NCL-100 - Patented quaternary chloride compound that is a liquid potassium chloride (KCl) replacement for use as a temporary clay-control additive. Does not affect formation wetting. Usual concentration is 1 to 2 gal/1,000 gal (1 to 2 L/m3), which is equivalent to a 2% (by weight) loading of KCl.


 

Friction Reducers

Friction reducers are typically high-molecular weight polymers of acrylamide in an oil external emulsion. They can be partially hydrolyzed and reacted with other chemicals to yield anionic or cationic products. They function to reduce friction pressures in all types of fluids from acids to hydrocarbons.

ClearSlik - Cationic emulsion polymer that can reduce friction pressures of water by more than 70%. Also adds viscosity to guar and HPG systems to help reduce the required concentration of gelling agent. Usual concentration is 0.5 to 2.0 gal/1,000 gal (0.5 to 2.0 L/m3).

FRA-175 - High-molecular weight, anionic, water-soluble, acrylamide-based copolymer that provides friction pressure reduction in fresh water, KCl, or salt water based fluids. Concentration range is 2.5 to 15 lb/1,000 gal (0.3 to 1.8 kg/m3).

FRA-177 - Partially hydrated, cationic, polyacrylamide copolymer emulsion that is compatible with brines containing potassium, sodium, or calcium chloride, dilute acids, and fresh water systems. Usual concentration is 0.5 to 2.0 gal/1,000 gal (0.5 to 2.0 L/m3).
FRA-700 - Very high molecular weight, anionic polymer suspension that is used as a drag reducer on water injection and disposal wells. Especially effective for saltwater re-injection to increase rates by 20 to 25% at equivalent pressure. Usual concentration range is 15 to 70 parts per million (ppm).

FRA-800 - High molecular weight, anionic, water-soluble emulsion polymer that lowers friction pumping pressures in fresh water and brines. Usual concentration is 0.5 to 2.0 gal/1,000 gal (0.5 to 2.0 L/m3).

OFR-2 - High molecular weight, synthetic polymer that effectively reduces friction pressures up to 60% when pumping hydrocarbons such as kerosene, crude oil, and other refined fracturing oils. Usual concentration is 8 to 10 gal/1,000 gal (8 to 10 L/m3) of base fluid.


Foaming Agents/Surfactants

Foam is a gas-liquid dispersion, with gas as the internal phase and liquid as the external phase. Low pressure formations are often slow to clean up and costly well swabbing may be needed. Foamed fracturing fluids offer a solution to this problem. Foam has low fluid content, exhibits excellent fluid-loss control and flows back better as a result of the expansion of the gas phase. The base fluid can be water, acid, water-methanol mixtures, diesel, kerosene or crude oil.

Anionic
Amphoam® - Anionic surfactant that contains an amphoteric foaming agent used to provide stable foams in water and acid at temperatures above 350°F (177°C). Enhances well cleanup because it does not plate out on the formation rock. Usual concentrations range from 5 to 10 gal/1,000 gal (5 to 10 L/m3).

CWF-311 - Blend of different, complex, alcohol ether sulfates that is effective in fresh or hard water, saturated brines, and in the presence of oil up to 350°F (177°C). Highly biodegradable. Concentrations range from 1 to 5 gal/1,000 gal (1 to 5 L/m3) as a surfactant and 5 to 15 gal/1,000 gal (5 to 15 L/m3) as a foamer.

NE-70 - Oil-soluble demulsifying surfactant containing an ammonium salt of a naphthalene sulfonate, with an ethoxylated resin in aromatic solvents. Effectively breaks oilfield emulsions in a wide variety of crude oils. Usual concentration is 0.5 to 5.0 gal/1,000 gal (0.5 to 5.0 L/m3).

TF-A1 - Patented foaming agent for low permeability shales, sandstones and coal beds. Creates stable foams at high pH, 8 to 10, and breaks at low pH, after encountering formation water. Effective for coalbed methane fracture treatments. Not compatible with clay control polymers. Usual concentration is 5 to 10 gal/1,000 gal (5 to 10 L/m3).

Cationic
CAT-Foam® - Cationic foaming agent that is effective in fresh or hard water, saturated brines, and in the presence of oil contamination up to 300°F (149°C). Usual concentration range is 1 to 10 gal/1,000 gal (1 to 10 L/m3).

NE-50 - Cationic surfactant that functions as a non-emulsifier and foaming agent, as well as a surface tension reducer. Possesses excellent detergent properties to clean fracture and wellbore areas. Concentrations range from 1 to 3 gal/1,000 gal (1 to 3 L/m3) as a surfactant or non-emulsifier and up to 10 gal/1,000 gal (10 L/m3) as a foaming agent.

Nonionic –
NE-21 - Blend of nonionic surfactants and wetting agents specially formulated for enhanced flow back in low permeability formations. Lowers surface and interfacial tensions and leaves formation water-wet. Usual concentration is 1 to 2 gal/1,000 gal (1 to 2 L/m3).

NE-200 - Alcohol ethoxylate based nonionic surfactant for low temperature applications, up to 150°F (66°C), to reduce surface and interfacial tensions and provide foaming properties for nitrogen (N2) foam fracture treatments. Usual concentration is 0.5 to 5 gal/1,000 gal (0.5 to 5.0 L/m3).

Read Weatherford's letter to shareholders and other documents here.


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